Durga Pooja | 杜嘉菩薩節

Durga Puja, also called Durgotsava, or Agamani, is the most lively and grand religious celebration of Hindus in Bangladesh and West Bengal in India during the year which reveres and pays homage to the Hindu goddess Durga. It is particularly popular in the Indian states of West Bengal, Odisha,Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand,Tripura, and the country of Bangladesh, and the diaspora from this region, and also in Nepal, where it is celebrated as Dashain. The festival is observed in the Indian calendar month of Ashwin, which corresponds to the months of September-October in the Gregorian calendar, and is a ten-day festival, of which the last five are of significance. The puja is performed in homes and in the public, the latter featuring temporary stage and structural decorations (known as pandals). The festival is also marked by scripture recitations, performance arts, revelry, gift giving, family visits, feasting, and public processions. Durga puja is an important festival in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism.

Durga Puja也被稱為Durgotsava或Agamani,是孟加拉共和國與印度西孟加拉邦的印度教徒一年中最熱鬧而盛大的宗教慶典,起源於景仰崇敬印度女神Durga的印度次大陸。它在西孟加拉邦,奧里薩邦,阿薩姆邦,比哈爾邦,賈坎德邦,特里普拉邦和孟加拉國以及該地區的僑民中特別受歡迎,在尼泊爾也被稱為達沙因。該節日在印度曆的Ashwin月(與公曆中的9月至10月相對應),是一個為期10天的節日,其中最後五個節日意義重大。該法會在家庭和公眾中進行,後者俱有臨時舞台和結構性裝飾物(稱為“ pandals”)。節日還以誦經、表演藝術、狂歡、送禮、家庭探訪、盛宴和公眾遊行為標誌。Durga puja是印度教的沙克教傳統中的重要節日。

Durga is the most important of all Hindu goddesses. It is tall and has ten arms. Each arm holds a weapon that is capable of destroying evil power. As per mythology, the festival marks the victory of goddess Durga in her battle against the shape-shifting asura, Mahishasura.Thus, the festival epitomises the victory of good over evil, though it is also in part a harvest festival celebrating the goddess as the motherly power behind all of life and creation.Durga puja coincides with Navaratri and Dussehra celebrations observed by other traditions of Hinduism, in which the Ram lila dance-drama is enacted, celebrating the victory of Rama against Ravana, and effigies of Ravana are burnt.

杜爾加(Durga)是印度教所有女神中最重要的一位,身材高大,有十隻手臂,每隻手臂握有足以摧毀邪惡力量的武器。根據神話傳說,這個節日代表著杜爾加女神在與變體阿修羅Mahishasura之間戰鬥的勝利,因此該節日象徵著善終結惡的勝利,雖然它在某種程度上也是一個豐收節,將女神作為所有生命和創造背後的母性力量而慶祝。Durga Puja與印度教其他傳統所見的NavaratriDussehra慶祝活動吻合,為慶祝Rama擊敗Ravana的勝利而上演Ram lila舞蹈劇並燒毀Ravana雕像。

Why does Durga have such an important position? Behind the grand worship, it symbolizes the power of Durga. Legend has it that the gods of heaven found that they must confront a hard-to-be defeated demon Mahishashur, and decided to combination, so the goddess Durga was born. Each of her arms retains the ultimate weapon that the gods have. The goddess who gathered all the advantages of male gods, eventually succeeded in destroying the demons. Durga Puja is a worship of the gods' power of the goddess Durga, symbolizing the war between good and evil, and the dark forces eventually succumb to sacredness. Dr Pratima Paul-Majumder explains, "The goddess Durga takes nine different incarnations, each of which tells the story of a woman's strength at different times and ages." Married Hindu women will be here at this time. On the forehead, cinnabar.

為什麼Durga神有如此重要的地位? 盛大的崇拜背後,象徵著Durga的神力。傳說中,天上眾神發現祂們必須對抗一名難以擊敗的惡魔Mahishashur,決定合體,於是杜爾加女神誕生了。她的每一隻手臂保留著眾神各自擁有的終極武器。這位集合所有男性神靈優勢而生的女神,最終成功消滅了惡魔。Durga Puja便是對女神杜爾加體現的神力的崇拜,象徵善惡之間的戰爭,黑暗勢力最終屈服於神聖。學者Dr Pratima Paul-Majumder解釋,「女神Durga採取九種不同的化身,每種形式都講述了一個女人在不同時間和年齡的力量的故事。」已婚的印度教婦女會在此時,在額頭點上朱砂。

Though the primary goddess revered during Durga puja is Durga, the celebrations also include other major deities of Hinduism such as Lakshmi (the goddess of wealth, prosperity), Saraswati (the goddess of knowledge and music), Ganesha (the god of good beginnings), and Kartikeya (the god of war). In Bengali traditions, these deities are considered to be Durga's children and Durga puja is believed to commemorate Durga's visit to her natal home with her children.The festival is preceded by Mahalaya, which is believed to mark the start of Durga's journey to her natal home. Primary celebrations begin on the sixth day (Shasthi), on which the goddess is welcomed with rituals. The festival ends on the tenth day (Vijaya dashami), when devotees embark on a procession carrying the worshipped clay sculpture-idols to a river, or other water body, and immerse them, symbolic of her return to the divine cosmos and her marital home with Shiva in Kailash. Regional and community variations in celebration of the festival and rituals observed exist, Including various forms such as sacred songs, burning candles, dancing, drumming, etc. Congratulations on the return of Durga to the world; cursing and offering flowers to bid farewell to the goddess who will return to the Himalayas and her children, praying for their blessings, and wishing for next year’s return.

儘管Durga Puja期間受尊崇的主要女神是Durga,但慶祝活動還包括印度教的其他主要神靈,例如Lakshmi(財富與繁榮女神)、Saraswati(知識和音樂女神)、Ganesha(開端之神)以及Kartikeya(戰爭之神)。在孟加拉的傳統中,這些神靈被視為Durga的孩子,而Durga Puja被認為是為了紀念Durga與她的孩子一起訪問她的故居 。節慶首先於Mahalaya,被相信代表著Durga前往其故鄉的旅程的開始。最初的慶祝活動從第六天開始(Shasthi),在這一天舉行女神歡迎儀式。節日在第十天(Vijaya dashami)結束,信徒踏上游行隊伍,將受崇拜的泥塑偶像帶到河裡或其他水體,然後將其浸入水中,這象徵著她與希瓦(Kaiva)中的濕婆(Shiva)重返了神聖的宇宙和所婚的家園。節日慶祝和儀式存在著區域和群體差異,包含吟誦聖歌、燃燭、舞蹈、擊鼓等各種形式慶賀杜爾加回歸人間;誦咒、獻花對即將返回喜馬拉雅山的女神以及她的子女告別,祈求祂們的祝福,同時預祝明年的回歸。

Durga puja is an old tradition of Hinduism, though its exact origins are unclear. Surviving manuscripts from the 14th—century provide guidelines for Durga puja, while historical records suggest that the royalty and wealthy families were sponsoring major Durga puja festivities since at least the 16th-century. The prominence of Durga puja increased during the British Raj in the provinces of Bengal and Assam. In today's time, the importance of Durga puja is as much as a social and cultural festival as a religious one, wherever it is observed.

儘管確切來歷尚未明朗,Durga puja是印度教的古老傳統。 倖存的14世紀手稿為Durga puja提供了指引,而歷史記錄表明,至少從16世紀開始,皇室和富裕家庭就支持著主要的Durga puja慶祝活動。 Durga puja的知名度成長於孟加拉邦和阿薩姆邦的英屬印度統治時期。 在當今時代,無論從何處審視,Durga puja作為宗教節日的重要性就如同其他社會與文化的節慶。

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