Shaheed Bhagat singh | 巴格特·辛格

Bhagat Singh (28 September 1907 – 23 March 1931) , also called ”Shaheed Bhagat singh”, is one of the most influence Indian socialist revolutionary when fighting against British India in the Indian Independence Movement. When Bhagat singh studied the evolution of the European revolutionary movement when he was young, he was inspired by anarchist ideas and Marx's ideology. He has participated in several revolutionary organizations, among which he was most active in the Hindustan Republican Association (renamed Hindustan Socialist Republican Association in 1928). His two acts of dramatic violence against the British in India and execution at age 23 made him a folk hero of the Indian independence movement.

巴格特·辛格(Bhagat Singh,1907年9月28日-1931年3月23日),或被尊稱為「沙希德·巴格特·辛格」,是在印度獨立運動中對抗英屬印度最有影響力的社會主義革命者之一。巴格特·辛格年輕時曾學習歐洲革命運動沿革,並受無政府主義思想、與馬克思的意識形態啟發。他曾參與數個革命組織,其中他在印度斯坦共和協會(Hindustan Republican Association,於1928年改名印度斯坦社會主義共和協會)最為活躍。他在印度對英軍的兩次戲劇性的暴力行為以及23歲時的處決,使他成為印度獨立運動的民間英雄。


In December 1928, Bhagat Singh and an associate, Shivaram Rajguru, fatally shot a 21-year-old British police officer, John Saunders, in Lahore, British India, mistaking Saunders, who was still on probation, for the British police superintendent, James Scott, whom they had intended to assassinate. They believed Scott was responsible for the death of popular Indian nationalist leader Lala Lajpat Rai, by having ordered a lathi charge in which Rai was injured, and two weeks after which, died of a heart attack. Saunders was felled by a single shot from Rajguru, a marksman. He was then shot several times by Singh, the postmortem report showing eight bullet wounds. Another associate of Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad, shot dead an Indian police constable, Chanan Singh, who attempted to pursue Singh and Rajguru as they fled.

1928年12月,巴格特·辛格和其同伴Shivaram Rajguru在英屬印度拉合爾致命的槍擊了一個21歲的英國警察John Saunders,將仍處於緩刑中的Saunders誤認為是他們打算暗殺的英國警察局長James Scott。他們認為Scott通過下令持棍衝鋒讓受歡迎的印度民族主義領導人Lala Lajpat Rai受傷並在兩週後過世於心臟病,對Rai的死亡有責任。 Saunders被射手Rajguru一槍擊倒。然後他被辛格射了幾槍,驗屍報告顯示他有8處子彈傷。辛格的另一個同伴Chandra Shekhar Azad射殺了一名在他們試圖逃離時追捕辛格和Rajguru的印度警員Chanan Singh。


After escaping, Singh and his associates, using pseudonyms, publicly owned to avenging Lajpat Rai's death, putting up prepared posters, which, however, they had altered to show Saunders as their intended target. Singh was thereafter on the run for many months, and no convictions resulted at the time. Surfacing again in April 1929, he and another associate, Batukeshwar Dutt, exploded two improvised bombs inside the Central Legislative Assembly in Delhi. They showered leaflets from the gallery on the legislators below, shouted slogans, and then allowed the authorities to arrest them. The arrest, and the resulting publicity, had the effect of bringing to light Singh's complicity in the John Saunders case. Awaiting trial, Singh gained much public sympathy after he joined fellow defendant Jatin Das in a hunger strike, demanding better prison conditions for Indian prisoners, and ending in Das's death from starvation in September 1929. Singh was convicted and hanged in March 1931, aged 23.

逃跑之後,辛格和他的同夥使用化名公開他們為Lajpat Rai's的死亡復仇,張貼了準備好的海報,但把展示的預定目標更改為Saunders。此後,辛格逃亡了許多個月,且當時沒有定罪。1929年4月,他和另一名同夥Batukeshwar Dutt再次浮上檯面,在德里的中央立法議會內部引爆了兩枚簡易炸彈。 他們從立法院下的畫廊散發傳單、高喊口號,並且讓當局逮捕他們。逮捕和公開的結果,使辛格在John Saunders一案中的同謀暴露出來。 等待審判時,辛格在加入被告人Jatin Das要求為印度囚犯提供更好的監獄條件的絕食抗議直到1929年9月Das死於飢餓後獲得了許多公開認同。他在1931年3月被定罪並處以絞刑,年僅23歲。


Bhagat Singh became a popular folk hero after his death. Jawaharlal Nehru wrote about him, "Bhagat Singh did not become popular because of his act of terrorism but because he seemed to vindicate, for the moment, the honour of Lala Lajpat Rai, and through him of the nation. He became a symbol; the act was forgotten, the symbol remained, and within a few months each town and village of the Punjab, and to a lesser extent in the rest of northern India, resounded with his name." In still later years, Singh, an atheist and socialist in life, won admirers in India from among a political spectrum that included both Communists and right-wing Hindu nationalists. Baghd Singh had a profound influence on the young revolutionaries in the history of India's independence. After the success of the independence movement, the descendants set up a memorial for him and set up his bronze statue in the Indian Parliament today. Although many of Singh's associates, as well as many Indian anti-colonial revolutionaries, were also involved in daring acts, and were either executed or died violent deaths, few came to be lionized in popular art and literature to the same extent as Singh.

巴格特·辛格死後成為民間英雄。Jawaharlal Nehru寫道:「巴格特·辛格並沒有因為其恐怖主義行為而受到歡迎,而是因為他彰顯Lala Lajpat Rai的表徵、時刻、榮譽,並貫穿他的民族。他成為了象徵;行動已被遺忘,象徵依然存在,在短短幾個月內旁遮普邦的每個城鎮和村莊,以及小程度上印度北部其他地區,都迴盪著他的名字。」在後來的幾年中,辛格這名無神論兼社會主義實踐者,在包括共產主義者和右翼印度教民族主義者在內的政治派系中贏得了印度的仰慕者。巴格特·辛格在印度獨立史中對青年革命家影響深遠,獨立運動成功後,後人為他設立紀念碑,並在今日的印度議會設立其銅像。儘管辛格的許多同夥以及印度反殖民革命者也參與了斗膽的行動,被處決或過世於暴力死亡,但很少有人能像辛格一樣在通俗藝術和文學中被領袖化。

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